Guía para los modelos multisectoriales del mercado de trabajo en los países en desarrollo

Gary S. Fields

Resumen


Los mercados de trabajo son importantes porque la mayoría de la gente, sobre todo los pobres, obtienen todo su ingreso, o la mayor parte de él, del trabajo que realizan. Este ensayo estudia los mercados de trabajo por medio de los modelos sectoriales. La primera sección sustantiva presenta la esencia de la modelación multisectorial, en particular el papel del dualismo del mercado de trabajo. Dado que los mercados de trabajo se componen a menudo de segmentos muy distintos, un enfoque analítico útil y perspicaz consiste en empezar con sólo dos segmentos interrelacionados, el formal y el informal. En consecuencia, las secciones presentan modelos de salarios y empleo en la economía formal, la economía informal y las relaciones intersectoriales, respectivamente. La última sección sustantiva muestra las contribuciones de estos modelos al entendimiento y el análisis de la política en los mercados de trabajo. No debería esperarse que el mismo modelo se aplique a África Oriental y Asia Oriental, o a Sudáfrica y Corea del Sur. Sin duda, el modelo “correcto” es específico del contexto. La combinación de la observación empírica y la modelación analítica ha generado grandes avances. Las políticas sólidas para el mercado laboral requieren modelos sólidos del mercado de trabajo.

Palabras clave


mercado de trabajo formal e informal; modelos multisectoriales; países en desarrollo

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20430/ete.v75i298.402

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